©1992, 2001, October 09, by Laurie J. Braaten

 The basic purpose of a footnote reference or bibliography entry is to tell the reader WHO wrote WHAT.  As obvious as this may seem, many omit this information when they cite articles in Journals, Bible dictionaries, Theological Dictionaries, or works within multivolume sets.  Below are examples of correct and incorrect ways to cite an author's work contained within a larger work.  Note that the correct citations all begin with the author, and then cite the piece the author wrote within the larger work.  The Incorrect Examples do not give the author's name nor the author's work, they only cite the editor and larger work (e.g., Dictionary or series).  All but the last example illustrate the Bibliography form.  Footnotes differ primarily by beginning with the author's first name and placing publication data in parenthesis. For some assignments,  In Text  references are preferred.  In Text references contain only the author’s last name and page number, in some cases the date, all in parenthesis.  If you have trouble following this guide, try going to the format templates at the beginning of each section, copy and paste them into your document, then substitute the information from the source you are using.  For more detailed bibliographic and footnote information in the Chicago or Turabian style see Kate L. Turabian, et. alA Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.   (See Links, "Writer's Handbook" for online versions).

A.  Article in Journal

Format: Author, "Title." Journal Name vol # (year):pages

Heil, John P.  "The Narrative Structure of Matthew 27:55-28:20." Journal of Biblical Literature 110 (1991): 419-538.

This format will be used for most ATLA materials (see below).

B. Article in Bible Dictionary, Theological Dictionary or Material in a Study Bible

Format: Author, "Title." In Dictionary Name, vol#:pages. Edited by editor's name. City: Publisher, year.


Mendenhall, George.  "Covenant." In Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 1:714-723. Edited by George A. Buttrick.  Nashville:  Abingdon, 1962.

Wright, David P.  "Feasts, festivals, and fasts."  In Harper's Bible Dictionary, pp. 305-307.  Edited by Paul J. Achtemeier.  San Francisco:  Harper and Row, 1985.

Fohrer, Georg.  "huios, huiothesia:  Old Testament and Judaism."  In Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 8:340-354.  Edited by Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich.  Translated and Edited by Geoffrey W. BromileyGrand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-76.

Carr, David M. “Notes on Genesis.” In The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha (NRSV), pp. 9-81 [Hebrew Bible]. Edited by Michael D. Coogan, Aug. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford, 2007.

> > Incorrect: < <           *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *

Buttrick, George.  Interpreter's Dictionary of the BibleNashville: Abingdon, 1962.

Achtemeier,  Paul J. Harper's Bible Dictionary, San Francisco:  Harper and Row, 1985, pp. 305-307.

Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich.  Theological Dictionary of the New TestamentGrand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-76.

Coogan, Michael D., ed. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha (NRSV). Aug. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford, 2007.

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C. Commentary in Multivolume Set or Series

Format: Author, "Title of Work."  in Set Title, vol. #: pages. Edited by name. City: Publisher, year.

Wright, G. E.  "Deuteronomy: Introduction and Exegesis."  In Interpreter's Bible, 2:311-537.  Edited by G.A. Buttrick.  Nashville: Abingdon, 1951-57.

Format: Author, Title of Work.  Series Title.  City: Publisher, year.

Guthrie, G.E.  Galatians.  New Century Bible Commentary.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,  1973.

Rad, Gerhard von.  Genesis.  Rev. ed. Trans. J. H. Marks.  Old Testament Library.  Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1972.

D. Item in ATLA Database

The sources in this database are merely scanned versions of printed materials and not unique internet sources. Therefore they will be cited in texts and bibliographies according to the standard printed sources instructions. Since most of these sources are from journals, see A. above.

E. Footnote Reference

Gerhard von Rad, Genesis, rev. ed., trans.  J. H. Marks, Old Testament Library (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1972), p. 143.

F. In Text Citation

(von Rad, 143)

If using two works by the same author, distinguish them by date:

(von Rad 1972, 143)

F. Links to Online Style Guides

The following links give more detailed information on citing various types of works, including internet sources:

University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center, Writer's Handbook . Documentation: Chicago Style [Available at:]

Western Washington University Quick Reference Guide to the Chicago Manual of Style. [Available at:]

Page, Melvin E.  H-Net .  A brief citation guide for internet sources in history and the humanities [Available at:]. .

Last Revised: 10/12/2009